It is well established that full competence of an oocyte (and thus-ovary) requires synchronous nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. An oocyte contains numerous organelles and molecules that are required for development. Any mitochondrial malfunction, DNA mutation, defects in maternal mRNA storage, insufficient synthesis of proteins or untimely destruction of proteins, results in ovarian insufficiency.
The impaired bioenergetics capacity in oocytes correlates with the decline of quality in eggs. Mitochondria are the most prominent cell organelles in oocytes,and they represent one of the important maternal contributions to embryogenesis.
Mitochondria also replicate during oogenesis, and their number rises from about 200 per oogonia to 6,000 per oocyte in primordial follicles and reaches up to 300,000 – 400,000 in the mature human oocyte. Owing to their role in energy generation and apoptosis, the mitochondrial status has been recognized as a determinant of the oocyte’s developmental competence.
During the past decades, the adverse impacts of maternal aging on oocyte mitochondria have been revealed. Mitochondrial swelling and cristae disruption is the common structural features of oocytes from women of advanced reproductive ages. Moreover, metabolic dysfunction of mitochondria may be responsible for aberrations in the assembly of the meiotic spindle, cell cycle regulation, and timely chromosome segregation, as shown for oocytes from aged women and mice.
HIIT -anaerobic training is beneficial for both healthy individuals and those suffering from several health conditions. HIIT workouts improve functional characteristics, increase ability, and improve the quality of life.
Considering that anaerobic training is done in the high-intensity zone (80 to 90% of maximum heart rate), HIIT training needs to be strong, intensive, dynamic, include short breaks and engage big groups of muscles. Special focus is put on strengthening the pelvic area as well as our target muscles.
Warm-up is required and an essential part of each workout. For 5 to 10 minutes we slowly increase the heart rate towards our target training zone. Each exercise begins and finishes at a slower pace. This allows the body to prepare, gradually regulating the blood flow and metabolism, and move from one level of intensity onto another, a high-intensity level that we require. After the high-intensity part, it is necessary to slow down, to allow the body to eliminate waste products, such as lactic acid. Rest, enough sleep and a healthy diet are important in defining the length of the workout, which must be adapted to individual’s current shape and overall health. Prior to beginning the HIIT training, medical clearance is required.
This includes several tests:
• Various blood tests including the assessment of Iron, Vitamin B, and D levels.
• Physical fitness metrics (measuring height and weight; body mass index – BMI; BC – body composition) using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical check-up with the 12-channel ECG as an addition to the patient’s individual and family medical history. Ergometry testing (stress test)
- Measuring muscle strength
- Measuring upper body flexibility
- Aerobic capacity assessment
- Determining heart rate training zones
5 to 7 exercises to be done for 30 seconds in HIIT mode, followed by 60 seconds of rest time, repeated in 7 to 10 cycles, depending on the type of exercise and individual fitness level. The entire training, including all 4 segments of different types of exercise lasts from 35 to 45 minutes and should be done 3 times a week. Along with this training, it is recommended to take moderate walks with 60 to 70% maximum heart rate lasting up to 45 minutes.
Firstly, a 15-minute warm-up followed by 10 to 20 minutes of the main intensive exercises and the remaining 10 minutes is left to slowly lower the heart rate and stretch the muscles.
- Higher training frequency for each muscle group,
- Higher energy consumption during the training,
- Increased release of energy which leads to super-compensation.
To overcome these problems, clinical protocols of mitochondrial donation were developed, using the oocyte cytoplasm extracted from a young donor that was transferred into the eggs of the recipient woman. The procedure, however, had a short life because of concerns regarding the consequent mitochondrial heteroplasmy, whose result was that children generated by this protocol possessed three different sources of genetic material (three parents child), namely the biological parents and the oocyte donor, for the presence of maternally inherited DNA in mitochondria. Therefore, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this procedure was considered a genetic manipulation of human germ cells and was no longer applied.
Another potential approach to overcome the defective egg energy includes the improvement of both biological and chemical compounds bioavailability, with the purpose to enrich the mitochondrial number or the efficacy of ATP production in oocytes.
Sex HIIT workout includes the following exercises:
• Different planks (side planks, plank jacks, side plank crunches…) • Skips exercise
• Jumping Jacks
• Exercises with sliders
It is possible to include exercises using one’s own weight or fitness tools (half-balance balls, Pilates balls, ropes, medicine balls, etc.)
The shortest SEGO/VA Sex HIIT period should last three, and optimally six months. Following the Sex HIIT, the same tests that had been done prior to SEGOVA program are performed in order to determine the objective benefits of the SEGOVA program.